Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире






Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Well, all we know something about material implication, at least we may know how it works. But it isn’t obvious, why it returns True for two False values and returns False for True and False. What on the Earth is going on here?

Actually, this concept is not as abstract as it seems. I prefer to consider it as a tool, which helps you to check whether your theorem is True, or not. Just a tool, like a wrench or a hammer. You have a belief? You may exam it with implication.

The best way to understand material implication is to imagine its using in real life. And here are some examples.

Example one.

I have a belief, that all the oranges are sweet. At least my grandmother told me so. But I’ve decided to do an experiment. I go to a supermarket, take a fruit and taste it. Hmm, that’s an apple. And it’s sweet. This doesn’t affect my theory, because I intended to taste oranges. OoK.  I take another fruit. It’s bitter, what’s it? Oh, lime. That doesn’t prove or disprove my theory  as well, unfortunately.

Another fruit I get is an orange. Great! I taste it — it’s sweet. I take another orange — it’s sweet too. Another orange is sweet as well. My theorem is still true. But the last orange I taste isn’t sweet — it’s rotten.  Now I know that not oranges are sweet — at least one of them was rotten. Some of them may be green probably. My belief is broken. I need to visit hospital.

I believe, that all the oranges are sweet. Fruit Taste Conclusion Result Apple Sweet This fruit is sweet, but it’s not an orange. I still think all oranges are sweet. True Lime Bitter This doesn’t prove or disprove my theorem. I still think all oranges are sweet. True Orange Sweet That’s an orange and it’s sweet. I still think all oranges are sweet. True Orange Rotten That’s an orange and it is not sweet at all. I have to admit my theorem was wrong. False

 

Example two.

I suspect that whenever you’re at home, your illumination is on. Probably, you’re afraid of darkness. I take sandwiches, binoculars, sit in my car and park nearby your house. At 5PM you are not at home, and there’s no light in your windows. At 6PM somebody turns the lights on in your house — but that’s obviously not you — I know you’re still at work. At 7PM you returns home — and lights still on. Haha. But wait.. At 9PM you’re at home, and lights are off. What a pity!

I believe, you are afraid of darkness. Are you at home? Are lights on? Conclusion Result No No You’re not at home. I still think you’re afraid of darkness. True No Yes You’re not at home. I still think you’re afraid of darkness. True Yes Yes You’re at home and lights are on. I still think you’re afraid of darkness. True Yes No You’re at home and lights off. I have to admit I was wrong. I’ll break your window. False

 

Example three.

I believe all the people are crazy. So I go outside and check every creature I meet. At first I meet ten people — all of them are crazy (yeah, all of us are in an asylum). Next I meet fifty are dogs — some of them are crazy and some are not. Why fifty? Well, I was attacked by  a troop when climbed on the fence. Then I meet a sane person (a doctor??). Well, probably I was wrong. I’ll take my drugs.

I believe, all the people are crazy.
Is it a human? Is it insane? Conclusion Result No No These are dogs. They are sane. It doesn’t tell me anything new. True No Yes These are dogs. Some of them are insane. But I’m interested in people. True Yes Yes These are humans. They are insane. I’m feeling lucky. True Yes No This is a human. It is sane. I feel fooled. False

 

Example four.

I have a female friend.

I have a set S of friends. S := {Peet, Eugen, Kate, Paul}

There’s also a set O of other people. O := {Person_1, Person_2, Person_3, ... Person_n }

So there is an x which is belongs to union of two sets, S and O, x has an attribute Friend(x) and x has an attribute Female(x).

The only one possibility for that predicate to be False is when I don’t actually have a female friend.

I have a female friend

Is it a friend

(x belongs to S)?

Is it female

(x name is Kate)?

 

Conclusion Result No No That’s not a friend at all. You can’t disprove my proposition. True No Yes That’s not a friend at all. You can’t disprove my proposition. True Yes Yes Ha, I was right. I have a female friend. True Yes No If I hadn’t had a friend named Kate, you could have kicked me.But not today False

Well, I hope I gave you some food for thought. Welcome to the comments ;)








Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире

Как сделать загранпаспорта во владимире